Biston betularia, the "peppered" moths living near English industrial cities. These insects have varieties that vary in wing and body coloration from light to dark. During the 19th century, sooty smoke from coal-burning furnaces killed the lichen on trees and darkened the bark. When moths landed on these trees and other blackened surfaces, the dark-colored ones were harder to spot by birds who ate them, and, subsequently, they more often lived long enough to reproduce. Over generations, the environment continued to favor darker moths. As a result, they progressively became more. As a result, they progressively because more common. By 1895, 98% of the moths in the vicinity of English cities like Manchester were mostly black. Since the 1950s, air pollution controls have significantly reduced the amount of heavy particular air pollutants reaching the trees, buildings, and other objects in the environment. As a result, lichen has grown back, making trees lighter in color. In addition, once blackened buildings were cleaned making them lighter in color. Now, selection favors lighter moth varieties so they have become the most common. This is example is in support of
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