On returning to England, Darwin and an ornithologist associate identified 13 species of finches that he had collected on the Galapagos Islands. This was puzzling since he knew of only one species of this bird on the mainland of South America, nearly 600 moles to the east, where they had all presumably originated. He observed that the Galapagos species differed from each other in beak size and shape. He also noted that the beak varieties were associated with diets based on different foods. He also noted that when the original South American finches reached the islands, they dispersed to different environments where they had to adapt to different conditions. Over many generations, they changed anatomically in ways that allowed them to get enough food and survive to reproduced. This observation in beak shape and size is termed as
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